Sounder SIGN UP FOR FREE
NatureLab
NatureLab

Episode 3 · 1 year ago

#3 The Animal Debate

ABOUT THIS EPISODE

Welcome back! First of we would like to formally apologise for the length of the episode, we understand the demand is for our shorter episodes. However! This one is well worth the listen as today we try to convince Juliet (The Moderator) and you, the audience why we think our individual animals are the best! We cover everything from the stigma of the animals to the reproduction stratergies and rituals! At the end of this podcast head over to our Twitter: @nature_lab to vote your winner of todays Animal Debate! 

#soivegotaquestionforyou

Hello and walkback to Ncelab, I'm Max.I'm joined again with my free friends, Dan Julia, I'm China. Today we're doingour first episode on something actually heavily animal related. Today, wheredoing a debate between a few of us and we're going to have a moderea which I'mgoing to pass over to now Julia, would you like to take the stage? Yes welcometo episode three, so IAS notset we are doing ot to animal, so e used tobathreeabout podcustoabes will do the best to persuade each other, the malder s an oraudience member hat that chosen animal is the best. So, at the end of theepisode, the Moderates Il Determined who they believe tit the strongest tobe, but we'll also hold a poll in our twiter Ou. I the audience to give usyour Galion. So, let's start with some ground drills make sure your argumentsare enbiassed no gan up on one personal Bullia, a make Sare you stix theenvironment. Your animals founding so is not said. Ian Loddery SI today letsstart by allowing our planalists to introduce their animal a ax Jeonogofast. Yet my animal today is cocodoles and more relating on the sowalk cactualoaen T ext. So my animal is the wolf the Gray Wolf specifically, I know ItoLand Mamma, even though a do Ta, Miionboor y o know ferbet about thisoimal China, I've chosen Evershark, so one of my favorite shocks and I'm goingto be trying to convince you guys way- is my favorite and why I think hes Igess on Tosi a noeven CHS er animals. Lat was Gott right into the debate.Oftis topic is the origin and avolution of your animal, so Talus Wi, chosanimal has the most interesting origin. Well, so weall know that crocodileshave been around since the dawn of dinosaulrs and they were actuallyfriving before the dawnsers reached their big peak. They first emergedaround two hundred and forty million years ago in the Meozoic area, which iswhere the Crocodille orderbe began to be the top of the Food Cham and theycome from a group called pseudo. CISSATIONS and cugicizations are, as aSu Group of a major division of another group called the arcasaws and theARGASOS are the most common and recent ancestor of birds of crocodiles.Tosudicesations would be the crocodile versions, and only four suborders haveactually survived since to the present bas since this, which ar crocodiles,allegagos, Camans angarials I'll go from mine for the wolf now from fexlrecords. The whalffard in Europe around eight hundred thousand years ago,during the middle of the placlon area in the mid latitude in North America,became well established in Europe thoug around four four hundred kil years ago,theyre all Oler records from Siberia and Alaska. So the idea is that thegreat wolf may originated somewhere there, since the mainly in NorthAmerican. Now that was eleven to four hundred million years ago, so littlebit before that, their ancestor is the Diarwolf, which was basically abiggerversion of the normal officor that survived with the giant sat inNorth America and Thesabetut cat, but th. The Gray Wolf appeared on the SouthF theay sheet around ton hundred thousand years ago in the same area.Everybody knows as well with Wolf that they've got everybody well, a lot ofpeople have dogs at home, so wolvs have had an interaction with humans for along long time there is a Ma. There is a small amount of evidence. A hunttogatherroms may have got their type meats from hunting with wolves, and so,if you think about it, wals hunting packs were able to take down largerpray than themselves. Everybody knows that, meanwhile, you've you've got ourancestors that still picking berries out of trees. So how did we evolve fromthat? From that vegetarian, almost IAT to now more of a ominabl D, aewcavenges before I think there is evidence of them getting theirtechniques from watching the walls and then even forming ond with walks, whichis how you see the old paintings of Mi Yeah K, faintings, that's the way, I'mlooking for. Thank you, man and Wolf working together. So whatwould happen? Is the war would track down the Brak? And then the man wasused tespears and their tools that they've developed to take down the Bray,and so that's like the actual evidence. We've got for it, but then there's alsoroles and stuff like north misthology. So you've got fenria and SCOL and Eitiand RAGNEROC stories about wolves like little redlike riding cod there',there's lords cases in throughout human history, so wolvs who definitely hadpar their origin with humans, and it would explain why we've developed thephrase man's best friend and why we demesticated the wolf, but I thinkthat's really fascinating yeah. So it's like they've always been by our side.Then, since the RACCOD show, yeah they've always been they've always beenthere, and if it does make logical sense that we evolve from age which a e,mainly you know, Vegetarian base diets, and now more of you' probably see a lotmore people eating meat than you would...

...the Carnivaldi, and it makes sense thatthey watched other animals get bigger and from eting that kind of food. Sowhat watching the evidence of huntergatherers watching walls may makesense in my opinion anyway. So you mentioned early as well is that theywere devived from a species known as Diowolf yewhich. There then they're,like the reading large kind of like gray wolvs nowadays on but they're alot whole care ot big anyone as sin game of frightenings. They are theanimals depicted as the house dark animal Ye Nuea. So they are bigeversion in the gray wolf and I think they have alve the diaoff ofall,because the prey was so much bigger at the time as the prey as the larger praydied Ou. It was better to be more of that scavenger base. Rather than beingthese big honking animals, they calld me in as bigger packs, because a killwill not feed that many big animals. So I think that's why ththe grey wolfs outlived that I walf yeah. You see that in a lot of alden day well, O they prestaecrocodoes as well, because there was a speciehes known of the downsuas, whichis quite like our nowaday allegaas th t. They would grow to thirty to forty feetlong because the prey tend was huge tha. They could take down such massive preyand they could afford to be that large yea, exactly a sorry, just puttingChinyov had a chance to sei much yet so at. Do you like to give us your opinionon y sorry, boow John Itis, ther etary, so as most of us now, includingtmelisses and sharks, have been around for time. They've been around literallyfor as long as people can remember, they were in historic stories as seamonsters and things loke that and evolved over about four hundred andFMILLION years. So that's a lot of time for species to diversify and e olv. Sothe zebrishark was first recorded in seventeen. Fifty eight and since then,there's been loadod debate over its actual scientific name, because thejuveniles actually have stripes hensthe names everyshark, but when they turninto adults, these stripes almost disintegrate into sots. So peopleoriginally thought that they were actually too separate species. Theydidn't realize that they were the set so until about ninetee hundreds, theywere still debating about whether or not he was the same animal. Theoriginal Naim for it was stagestone Pastealton, which I'm probablyabsolutely butching the name I never took lat in. So please don't judgementsince then they've been using it, and it was only last year, so two thousandand nineteen that they actually changed it back to the Formana od StegestoMatigronum, and that's because the name actually fits better with itsbiological clasification. However, whether or not they decide to change itin the common years as a different matter, so really zever sharks havebeen around probably longer than most people realize and ous. It's onlyrecently that we've actually become aware of these and obviously come tolove them really wh. Why do you think that is China that we don't know anofficeit, because they're at such depth or e, they just difficult to comeby, sozebrishack s actually quite easy to find, and these guys usually don't goany deeper than sixty two meters and so most of the time, you'll find them onlike sandy platforms. Most of the time, you'll see them when you go scoe divingin colal reefs, and so it's usually the kind of western Pacific, an IndianOtian, so tropin an subtopical regions, basically because they are a lessunknown species of shocklike they're, not as popular as to say the great wife,which is another favorite of making or tigersharks, or things like that, then,nor as kind of covered by the media as those tigpt owns. So when it comes toactually researching them and things tes. Obviously a lot less o demand forit. If you will so, I think it's definitely kind of bordering it's morerecently that there's a lot of studies been done on them, obviously, becauseof them being in more aquariums, and things like that that we've really goter kind of know what these animals are and kind of way to look for them, andthings like that. Othey have all got really uninteresting points for thestirs. So I'd like to ask about the environment, your Animal Lis, en whatcan you tell us about the adaptations, your animal possessors that allow it tosurvive in this Habita n? Why is your animal better than the other chosanimals in this contextcrocodiles? They they range in different habitats, theall aquatic Semiocuati, there's around twenty three spechies of them total inthe world, and they mainly live in swamps marshes and whetlands andesteris somewhere for them soae to be murky. Water, so they're, darkcolerations on their skin is able to blend in with the murk and the muck inthe water and because the very opportunistics and ambush typepredators as well, so he'd love to have a place to hide and Setas. The namesuggests with the Saltwater Crocodile...

ACAN live costal they can live in salwater, like Heislennto Water, compared to RThe of t e freshwatrs species, andthese solwal cross crocodiles also have a big range from brackish to fresh warsof eastern India, Southeast Asia, Normhen Australia and have even beenspotted far out at sea. I'm wondering wh is probably one of my favoritethings about these corcodiles is that they have. He have to spend a lot ofthe time submersion to war and since they're not fully aquatic, they stillbreeair. So what they can do. They have a valve at the back of the throat whichcan close when the submerge to prevent them from drowning also means they cankeep their mouth under water, open UN der war as well. They would like to syeah I awed at this. What I found out. I've always really calld and they like to sit with the mouthopen and usually they wait for some like a fish from passing the snapicshot, real, quick, so et's really beneficial for them to have this mouthunder water open. They can stay submerge for around an hour or more andth, like I said, earlyer the CAPL fravenue, four siliny aw and salt warcracks they're able to smat to Tirto two clomaters an hour and the and theUrso needs to potect their eyes and ears and nostrils. Well, the submerseas well f these dankmerky waters, so what they do, they have transparenteyelids where helper tet their eyes, so the brothers submerged they shout their transpant eyelid. So itprotects the eye from the water and they're incredibly well, adapted tojudge distance of Pres. so you know en you lan under water, and you look tothe surface and you look out why, beyond the surface, it looks sodistotatyo commonly tell whereabouts, is crocodiles, Oll, be able to figureout and know exactly how far, where that prey is how much prpower theyneeds to put in their tail to jump up and when the rimont strikers and anevher good finger as well is that they have such a unique body type. The wayit's shaped is that their eyes, ears and nostrils will be above the surfacewhile the rest of the bodies submerged, and they can lay there fromotionlessfor hours, so they can still breathe for the nostrials out. They can stillscan around at the top and still be well camouflage underneath they alsohave a very fict played hide to act as armor when they get into a fi with notjust clockgrous, but with some of he prey as well and and never fing as well,is that they have a lateral process of the spy. Er Watch is joined to Intelotiintolocking bony place on their dorsal scales by some ligaments. These R areSeni rigid, so the store quite flexible bas still quite hardly as well, andthis allows the structure allows for them to be more efficient to transferenergy to their Tal 'cause. What they do is when they're lying in Weit theyuse their tail as like a lift to push them out of the water. All the power HT comes from the tail Heis such a powerhouse nd Mussle. This tale t likeit, could probably break bone. If it woal slap, you fall speed or whateverthat onte to be on the receiving end Obat. Oh No, you don't want to be hitby one of those tales. Another fing as well is yeah, like I said they couldjust be stationary and the tale has enough power and muscle to just propelthem from a stationary spat in matter of seconds out of the water tey you'd,just bove a blink in an eye you'd be having jaws rapped around you thatsound scary and Um. Their nostrils can also beclosed by some membraneous flaps. So when th underwater water won't go up,the nostrils and their eyes have vertical slip. Pupils which are narrowin the light and when it becomes dark the widen, so they canseesie- and theseare quite noctongue animals as well. So they do a lot of hunting at night,Okright Time, God iwer, tight to say yehoed at last, so the best best mad.For me to answer this question is I've got two CSE stories. I've got one onthe yellowstone introduction of walls and then one on the Chinovel studid one.There aresome like basic adaptations that walks out to living in theirErionments oreverybody whos. They live usually in that winter mountaineregions, so one thing they'll have is: If anybody's ever tried to walk in snowor even try to run. You know that a bigger fort is way better. SOMOLLS illhave on their feet. They'll have the snow sho effect, whereas they steptheir footbroardens, which increases the surface area, Alamintem moreeffective movement in the snow, that's Relacal, if you can imagine having toChase Caribo or elk or anything like that, they all fast animals, so in Ater,Onti, imaginit, besy to go and catch P, Olaran Light Sti iseexactly onimageawolves and humes God. They've. Also got obviously thickcoats in winter, but when they sleep, they sleep with their tails coveringtheir nose, so that holds the warm as when they exale over their feet andnose that warms them and N, when they...

...inhale airs filtered through the tail,which is s o. The air they're getting back in, is also Walmars O. It's notthat's what keeps them warm during these really cold nights. Wen S, that'spretty cool yeah! So as well in winter, the hunt with larger packs 'cause. Ifthey can hunt in lauch backs, they can hunt bigger and more animals which willfeed. You know the bigger Ye, the bigger pack in the bigger animals.There was a study don on wolf populations in the auts that found theydidn't just increase their normers overall in seven years they found thatthe majority of wolves were also young, and this was because of the socialhierarchy of at so younger wolves can be more fertile.If I go on to the the yellow, they were one, so they were first introduced um a pack introduced in yellowstone wascalled the deruids, so they elk population of Boond in yellowstone. Sothere was there was plenty of food, but the ELK wer killing the environmentbecause they were eaten so much of the plantations, and so these druids t atwere able to do to build a massive pack. They pikued at thirty seven members intwo thousand and one and they adda massive massive territory. Now it's notthe jurid pack, there was a rival pack that overthrew them, which meant thatnot only one packet succeeded. T meant that othe pacts an made and were nowyou know competing for that power in such a a new environment, new place, which wasbrillatable so it shows they can overcome these these other other areas.They also had a positive impact on beever populations, and I think it'ssqrirrel populations as well in the area, the last one, if Ey'e just gooverChinabal as well. So everybody knows what happened in tonovl. It was aterrible disaster, but because the lack of human activity there, althe mammalswere able to take over the area, walls were one of those Soe. Nature wasabsolutely thriving over there since we 've left and they were found withradiation in their systems, which was definitely expected, and I wo' I wouldlie and say there was no clear indication of the health of the animalson this study, because that's not what they're studying it was just. Are theysurvivein there which they were so they could a amit? There could be geneticimplications from the UMOUNT radiation poisoning or, I think, for a species tosurvive in an area lachnovel where we caud and we are like almost peak inevolution, wwe've come so far. We've come from a we O aut. We can't survivein that environment, so I think for wolves to be able to they ale br. Theywere breeding in there. They were hunting and there I think, that's justan incredible statement. It is really incredible how they've just managed toadapt to such hazardous location. Yeah rningi make a massive statement on'cause. A lot of species like your yoursowards scrocodalmath, havesurvived through their environment. Ye have a natural disaster like that occurthat was caused by ous and then to still survive through that. I think Iis incredible. Yeah Yeah I mean it's not really natural dixasterit's,probably more than my maid disaster, which yeah yeah some aspects could beworse. EXAC AN VI managed to rise up to the challenge and survive and thrivethere y Exactl, what you say: Lso particularly resilient changes inenvironment. Absolutely, I think, th the Yellowstone C stody has has thatfor it, even though they have plentiful food, you know they still have tostruggle to to get th to get used to that environment. You know they comefrom you. I think it was Siberia. They bought these walls from so thetemperature was different. The crimb at was different th and when you wmove aWalf from a place where it had a pack, it knews the area knews where the foodis and then you'Le Just dropp in it in this mountain, and they still did it.These drewid Thi trewd pack built a massive pack and then another pack thathas just you know, probably from Omega's being kicked out which Omegasbarely survived, has now overtaken that pack, which isn't even bad casinbow,yeah yeah eduring. How that many packs on Yellowsod? It's it's incredible,they're all over American. Now, because right, so we got two particularlystrong arguments: China, howl DOS upper shocks. Yeah, sorry like is Tan not toopartentulally strong arguments. How does AVERSHOCK SAN OIN is context, soobviously most people, if you think, O an aquarium, the likelihood is youwould have seen aeverstare. So basically, these guys are mostlynoturnal corradges. So during the day, Theye, quite lefargic and Lesy, sotheyre also Bentic, which means they now on the bottom, like their bottomdwellers, so thoughout the day, they're kind of just cruising being quite lazy,seey, but then their actual body shape even not many shocks that Shet sleep asit were: ter, obviously not sleeping e eetin. And so until years ago, peoplethought that sharps had to constantly...

...move to say alive and zebeshopsactually have particularly reinfour skills where they are able to. Nay, onthe floor and Theyr Gill, almost double pumpin away, so that they constantlyhave the rush of water over their ills to provide them with the oxygen theyneed to Supie. So they've got reinforced air ways, which isincredible: obbousy such an animal to change the way reezs in a way, but thentheir body shape is Wellso, Hoave, not seen as eversharp they their tailed.They usually have two sections to it. So then they've got an opperseption ind,a lower section. Now zeveral shorks have an extremely elongated top sectionof their tape, while the bottom load of the tal is very minimal and sometimesalmost appearsi, it's not there. So that's because these guys are actuallyincredibly flexible. So basically they've sacrifice the speed so make hersharks and things like that. Atailte almost look symmetrical in the factthat their equal sizes, whereas zebersharp's obvousy, don't have thatand that's because they sacrifice their spee for their manuverability to beable to efficiently move their bodies to fix situations. So obviously theytend to live around colorits and things like that, so they will quite oftenfeed and crevices and and often have to fit into very small type gaps toobviously escape things and swim around alse such for Boo. So these guys areincredibly flexible and the fact that they changed such a crucial partbecause obviously the TAL or the cordalfars, the tail is really whatprovides the most proportion in the shorokon so for them to change thatover. However many years of it being the same, its actually very differentto the common types and sharks we seen, and so the fact that theyv changedtheir main method of proportion, they've changed them for reading hebreathing like Merdinvolsen yeah mechanism and Greein forcement, O thewords I was lorking for and the fact they've done that and they heavily relyon electroricection, so sharks, a such as no sharks, carpetshor and wobigons,and things like that often have barbls or whiskers at the front of their round,Ed Nelts, which allows them to detect electrical currents or, basicallyanything thats urround them. So these guys rely heavily on their renetoreception. Now, land animals do not have this because ofte see they don'tthey don't have the medium for the electricicals to travel, so landanimals have air, whereas opto sy, the cotic animals have the water, which ismuch sicoi much gen, sir, so the electrical currents can pass througheasier, which is just amazing for these guys to be able to rely so heavily on asentisor. Not many animals actually have b t to then change their entirebody shape and their reinforcement of breathing is like three of the mainaspects of life really in general survival. SCOLS Ocao, I'm just till ACIthat the next thing I would like to last yea about the social inserruptionsbetween your chos and animals. Can you explain to us about social,interractions and thehanes between individuals and what makes socialbehaviors in your animals so interesting to you? So we've crocodilesespecially SOWALcockos their more solitary animals. They refer to be in the ROM Bu. They M.If the other do come into a situation where th they do require to communiqueand Socializ ov individuals such as Ma with a female he actually communicatedby a variety of different, sounds so cocodiles and alligates alike have beenknown to bark, Hih, chop and growl at each aother, no form of their own orcommunication, and each sounds witl cos the Publi mean to them different thingsand the majority do th. The socializing is when they're, bassaging or feeding Ican mention before. Salt is e, more territorial and Theyr, very lesstolerant of their own kind, and they have a large range of a territory whichthey will share with small females. But if a mayor would come into that,erritory et will usually end in a fight and cinders various of a species ofcocks whil. I've been seen hunting together and a couple of the little ver.Observations have been indicated of doing this, there's shown to be aspecial club, F hunters with twenty or more of animal species, and this littleclub is known for using sophisticated coordination and assuming differentroles depending on individual abilities. So one thing they would do is theywould get a bunch of smaller cocodiles to sit at one end of a bank like a shallow,a bank and siving alligators would do this and there'll be the largeindividuals. Wile go deeper down and push deep or fish up the river whichthe smaller ones Wuld themblock Tham to escape, and then they woulds feed onthese bigg fish annoter one would be. Is they would circle a shoal of fishtit in an antiten in the circle to make a baitball essentially and then thecrocodiles would zoon past through the circle. Snaponut Fish Indivi one at atime, so they've been shown to help...

...each ofher in scenario such as this andthere's even been a case with so wark crocodiles, where it was observed thata salt war or crock chased a pig into an ambush with two of the SALTES WAIING by so not only is it seen in just these smaller, more erm social species,it seem quite a bit in the bigger ones and more scary ones as well. But,however, the not really very they're not really a very social animalthemselves, sorites they usually stick to theself Dand. You want to talk aboutYotra Utra into horse yeah, so I think packs are probably the main socialbehavior that people know about when it comes toe walls, the belt from the Alfu,so you have the Alfra, which is the male and the female Alfer you can havebaiters depending on the size of tha pack, that, like the second Intermand,you have the rest of the pack and then have the Omegas which t e lowist IntheHax. Basically, don't because theye allow for more territory more food. Ithink when you have packs a like the drewigs that are bov thirty, I justdon't think anybody is ngoing Na want to mess with them. Just saying that so struct bstructure allowscommunication and education and transfer now knowledge across thegenerations of the parks. The best way I found to describe it is like tribesof Native Americans like we still understand them now, because it's beenpassed on for so long that that's how you'd look at warfbacks. Okay, we'vealso got hierarchy of packs as well, so that's formed from social bondingwithin a pack. They don't just have the Alpha and the Alpha female. It's allall the warms that fall, this social onnet. You can get Romagas and theyaredone for a number of reasons. It can be males Challengein, the ALPA and losingit can be a weak walf in the park. It can be a rud in the litter. It can be awolf that's accepted into the pack, but not gain their respect to the Olfer. Sothat happens when it's meeting season and the females have accepted that themale coming in the Alfemale has not andhe just has to live with it, and hepretty much just bullies this. This ofthe mal, either until he submits,leaves or or t at he somehow gains the respect. So you've got that rank orderthat I spoke about earlier. That maintained through series of ritualizefights and hostering as well like ritual bluffing. U So wolves preferpsychological warfire more than physical because it drainingto them forthe actual hunt, so they'd roar, the just snarl at each other bark and justkind of make themselves look big rather than an actual fight bodyposture aswell dats, a way of interaction and communication andwalls, so you'veprobably seen a glimpse of it in your dogs at home. So dominant Wolf standswith its stiff legs and stiff tail, pushes the chest out and the avulishreally penetrating stare as well. Anto tat an example of like menacing way to describe ther body postures.Things are ABBs, so object, O one more as well so sthe, Wolf, howl! Well,that's definitely away for social interaction with whateverybody knowsabout Warfhol Massivepar, their social interaction, N behavior. It'severything for wolves, it's Thai pinpoint for each other location, it'scalled into battle its victory, but it does allow othe walls to hear I thatisthe Oly Problem With it o I just want to claify. I wolls don't Howl at theMoon Gate tees a methow, they howl at the twilight hours and they pointawkwards so that it can travel in the windmall. That's why walls howl thatway, I my whole life in a line now yeah yeah, that's how I felt I just sayis.Well, mammals have, I think, actually sly advantage on these other animalsthat you guys have got dutfacial expressions, so they can indicatedominant behavior by bearing teeth or they can be submissive and which iswhere the face. Like almost droops. I imagine that sort of thing goes intighwith their psychological warfare time. Yeah getewer te challenge each of heryeah. Also when Manigtin as well. That's another one, so the ALF Wuldmore than likely be like their father or their grandfather and packs. Don'twant him to read it so females in the pack will snall at the Alpha bite himeverything. The ELPHEL will become almost submissive during meeting season.Because of this it it's clear that wars are very social. Are they quite vocalwith each other then or the more physical when it comes to interactionswith each other? Definitely more vocal, yeah they'll only be physical withrival packs. That's when things become physical or pray. Anything like that!That's when wavs become FYRSICAL, but no, not not in between the packsthey're. More than likely, they won't Bo out there Oka, but that's me done sojon if you want to carry on for...

...yes, so as ever, sharks are actually alot more social than people think so, when it comes to being with each other,they're similar to the salt walk crocodiles, Lak, they tend to besolitary. However, grup of twenty fifty individuals have been recorded Um, andthis is made of mostly mature adults and from what we can gather in estimateof the Sidom, the difficulties of tracking such mobile animals. So theexact reason all these groups are very unclear and, however, with the femalesoutnumbering, the mals Apoxie, with ree Om one who do think that it is aprepopulatory which is basically um the behavior that is exhibited just beforemating. So we do believe that they have this social interruption, howeverobvousy with them being, obviously so mobile and things like that is quitedifficult to record. This exactly so most of the research that's been DonInd. It has been done in aquariums, which brings me to my favorite car,about sepersharks as ebersharks are be friendliest shark possible. So if youwere to ever go scubar diving and you see a Shok, you would more than likelywant it to be these guys, because these guys are insanely social withhuans. Soat my first experience an aquarium n there was a Zabeshot coldnudch. He ismy best friend. I mentioned him in the first Episodee OCASS and he actuallyrecognizes the scuba divers. So we have two of the scuba divers that go in andthers one male and one female and SCUPA divers and nudge ax differently betweenhe doesto the female in the mail. So when the male scubi diver goes in he'svery kind of typical teenage boy, he's almost like a puffy he's very playful,he often swims up to you and he will nodge you. Hence his name he had, buthim he tends to almost dance with him. So when the SCUBI divers a stoodvertically nudguill come along and every move that the scubo diver makesmud will actually mimicate, and this is somewhat I've seen in otherzeberasharks as well, so Ted Thos eversharks. We have at my job tat edeep and they both do this as well. They react differently to each of theSCUBO divers and they recognize them and they change their body behavior,based on which scubadiver theyre, interacting with so they're insanelyintelligent for something like that which obviously fish cognition, issomething that a lot f people are really familiar with when it comes totheir intelligence in general yeah. I was I'm quite surprised about that,because I she founds to be quite similar with Saltes as well and Um.There was this one M who was called, I believe it was low long and he was atwenty Fort Qa Sarwater croccodole with the COR and they brought hem intocaptivity and, despite his massive size, he became a gentle giant and um a lotof cockdousand captivity specially salties. They will recognize, keep hersfaces and there's even been times where it's like they will permit te keeper topet them, and is that sane with Lakm zebasharks like let them interact withthem? Or is it more just like more like a playful thing? They want to come.They have look Andacan. I just give a quick disclaimer: do not try and Hookor talk to any of these animals in the wild? No, no specially, not worves orcrocodiles. No even Terbershak. These are trainedcaptive. Animals don't want any other listeners going out into wild andattemptto what Channe does to Serbis Youe these animals are still dangerous. Okay,wtax his question one of his everal shocks at work. Was this really cutething where he will um swim up to the SCUBA DIVERS? So obviously because theyare APHOTIC, the divers have to have full face masks, so you can't actuallysee therare exact faces when they're underwater. So it's a little bitdifferent tofosolties, because it's kind of harder to recognize who's whobecause, obviously they all look tfor saming with the same guy o anthing. Soit's just that little bit of extra recognition H, I think it's lightlydifferent Bu. These guys are just amazing, so M Tomo, who is my favoritefellow and he tends to swim up to the truba divers and he will actually layon their head, which obviously isn't a great whay you're tryingto feed animalsand things, but he will nay on their heads and then he will glim up in frontof you and Nudg you and then roll over onto his back. So also he actually asksthe belly robs almost like a puppy. So that's quite amazing, like I've, neverseen an animal do that before which I thinkis just brilliant and he asks for head robs and things like that. So it's it's.Definitely what Max was saying about them. You know recognizing people andbeing very interactive and almost on their torns, basically yeah an tast OQitfur. When I went to the date a...

...couple of years ago, I saw one of thedie of shows and U, the Seprar sharps eere, acting very friendly one of thedivers, but I eleve. If someone can said an hat show, the reason they werfal base mask is because one of his upper sharks will rips the Mascov. Yetthat's Tommo. He is very mischievous, so he will previously when they hadoregular Scouba mass. He will actually nodge the strap off and he willliterally get it off your head because he thinks it's a form ofplaytize. So a lot ofthe, behavioral issues, N and Research Inins is aboutwheather or not. Animals exhibit play traits and things like that and seeseversharks. U I Vele, which is the area where I want to go into. They very muchexhibit playful behavior, especially with things like the masqlevs sayingbelly robs head rubs things like that, so they definitely likeunderwa dog anthey are. I I the labradors of the ocean yeahyeah that makes more senseiing on, for that, like Youve all been talking about your animals displayingfriendly trait give in that each of Yo animals is like stigmatized in some way.How would you argue that they are actually good for mine? I think people, because thpeople have dogs in their home. I think people really think wolves have thisnice kind of friendly nature. They don't occay. There are plenty ofstories of hunters Beeng almost hard apart. My Wolves, agay Woll of very,very dangerous. A cord streses in arecad walls are so dangerous. Don't gonearwolvs, don't interact with wolves, don't let your dog of the lish nearwalls nnow, for how long they've been aroundon their own. They now built into morther nature D with that wildsidecase, so they ave not these friendly, loving animal they're, not French boldog. Okay is Itnonyou, no young neighboere. So far descendant from thatkind of dog a case, please do not try to codol walls or interect Wi walls,Howa youte, stigmatize Ole, I think brual honesty is the only way to go. Ithink people need to see the brutality of Paks overwalf. I think they need tosee walls fighting among each other. I think they see walls taking packs downbecause a lot of the documentaries show when walls fail or when I get away.It's a good thing, because the Olk have lived h, t that's usually not whathappens. Most of the Te latest tarvish, stupads,Yeh and Oswell go walls will go for the young and the weak. There is nothingmore evil than that Okake I mean what you said early as well, isthat they're depicted in norsothology on they usually picted as somethingevil. Inothe Wolf Fenria is the bringer of the end of the world in Northmadmythology and so a Scollan haty. I think I had something on Vikings. Ifyou just let me go through a note, quick, vikings, more Wolfskins anddrank wharf blood to take in a spirit of Wolf into battle. That's howdangerous they thought they were. Okay, Tas, why they should be left alone. Thegrim brother, the grim brother story of Little Red Riding, cood little redriding good gets eaten. Okay, that's how it really ended. Okay, it wasn'ther grandmother, Litle, red R, O a little child riting in the brother's,grin story, thatis how horrible wolves are Slo kid. If an is no kids, if youwant a dog, don't get the Grey Wolf, get the DASHHOUND stop asking for Walsas pets. Okay, they're, not pets. Tever, going going BA to benred ther's, alwaysbeen the sticker aroundwol, I believe Um he got changed up, didn't yeah. Idon't know how th this stigma has really got t, probably from tdomestication walt of dogs book. Yet venre was chained up because he was sodangerous. Does Hati Howl Them Al Moon? No! No! But I you do make a very validpoint. You did go off attention about how dangerous they are, but they are.You can't domesticate a wolf ihave to say it Chihuahuaas a pretty violentyeah. I mean IW, a Tosco Beteen, a Chihuahua Iwe all know what who to win that you an but you all, I tell youBeverley hills is a dangerous place. Oou nowu Yo make a rely, strong pointand brutal honesty is the way to go about that. I do it yeah true, it istrue, it's the only way is, but I think we can move on now. I think I've Donmob it well. Obviously sharps have such aSigrar aboutalbum like it's. One of my main goals is to help eliminate thesigma because, like I've just explained...

...yes, the zepra sharks are shocks, butat the end of the day they are not the mindless cing machines that theydepictd in media, so R, by using examples specifically like thisepershark and to explain how their cognition and the behavior- and youknow, thei a general personality- is a lot more complex than the sugmur givesthem popedit Fal. Really. So the only reason that I obviously don't go out-and you know hunk a shark ecause, obviousy ITI's not going to end well anfor. If you want to help alleviate the stigma oak sharks, I think it is bestto star with the friendliest species like the Zeproca to Elain Abow. Youknow that General Demeanour and their general personality and the fact thatwe really need to study this to help get ripe things like sticksound animalsyeah. I Agree Y on the sharp N, especially with that, because Umimagine there's not really much to say for the Zebazar h zebishark itself asan individual, but in sharks in the broad aspects. There's a lot stiguburto it. I mean look at the movie jaws raised basically hell for sharks in themedia that showed them thattheyre blood. First to killing machines H. I thinkyou' got like a reverse case of what I have so very opposite. Weal have a verypositive signal that we're trying to eliminate and get back to a morerealistic spectve were sharps Wer, doing the opposite by getting rid ofthe negativity and replacting it with. Yes, it's so real, because at the endof the day they are sharks and they are very different from us, so should notbe messed with, but at the same time they are also positive and thereare.Also things of wonder and amazement at the fact. Basically, a fish is capableof so much more than we realized crocodiles, a very, very territorialand aggressive animals, especially the salty, but because of that it needs tobe respected in Easter, noit, foundres whilse also still respecting it andshedding light on the factor Zo, an animal that we should cherish and learnabout and understand. I think maxe. You have like a conservation based caseVorce. This stigma and because there's obviously a lot of crocedite hunting, OYat, the Ael, there's also a underestimation the of Thadaa. So Ithink people need to respect the light chiniter. They need to be respected andunderstood yeah. They was due to this reason, N. I believe it was back in the sixties. I'll have double check that m salt or crocodiles were almost drien toextension due to human hunting, because they were seen to be dangerous animals,and there was seem to be an amazing trophy for hunters to collect and there shark, because of the film jawshe mentioned earlier. Their actual jaws are rippd from their solgs andliterally plated in Golden Hundes Tropies, and because of the film jawsthere was that much of a massacre that great whites, Ben inly giventoextinction as Wellso it on at a lot of ocreditors yeah. It is very importantfor the public and the medly media like to understand, respect and learn aboutthese animals and not just these animals, or I think we should get backto the debate now. 'cause. I think we've got bet too friendly with eachother. Okay, the next topic you talk soalready about huncing anbeday. So I'd like you to debate the advance just Otie on ses ove all shows anial on an ading beaokay. Sorry, so yeah. As Imentioned earlier, crocodiles the opportunistic in ambush budders. They'lllurk beneath the surface of the water with just the eyes eased nostrilspoking out scanning the area watching the water's edge, andwere, ther, verydark, coloration and theyhave Tik highly play underneath the water. Theylook practically invisible to whatever prai's going to come across and thenwhat they would do. They wull sit near the water's edge and they will wait forthe right moment and as soon as that, right mome comes out, they will usetheir powerhouse of a tail to lift them out the war and blink of eye wrap theirjaws around their prey and then drag them into the water to drown them. It'sa very brutal brutalway, a verm of catching and killing pray, but theywill tell eat anything from Wa Bufflo to bore to by to large crabs and fish,it's even their own kinds, and we so ware Coccodiles have even known fon insharks. China and they've got not just a powehouse ofa tail. They have monster jaws with...

...five Inchlung conical teeth all the wayaround down their jaws and a male will have an average of sixty six when it'sfully grown and these jaws are designed for clamping and piercing at the sametime. So there's no way for them to get F. Basically, once you you can't getout, and with these as well, we all know the intimose death or whatcrocodiles do so when they grab their pray. You drag them into the water andif it's a large prey for them to consume, what they'll do thes SPA met.They they spin their body around with the prame mouth as well I's called thedeathrol and he's besigng to frow tr to trow large pray of balance, so it canbe dragged under the surface easier as well to R itczdrown and because theseanimals also nocturnal, they hunt a lot at night. So not only does the darkmirky cover them cover their body, but eat's even harder to see at Nigh aswell and you've. U Only just got two little eyes poking out the WAER surfaceand what they Um. What they have as well is when they'r say if they're, nothunting big pray waters edge when they're sitting at the bottom of theriver, the the lake they'll hold the mouth open under the water, with thatvow of blocking them and preventing them from drowning and they've gotsensitive pressure receptors in the pits in the scales around their mouthto detect motion. So as something swims along the detectit, the slamshop and Um Sori Igo, some disadvantages, SSince,they're, very ambush and opportunistic. Sometimes the opportunity is not goingto come along and is very rare and opportunaly wood. The wabill flownnotes of the corcodile there, the whole herd's going to go before has a chanceto catch his meal and he could be days o weeks even a month or so before. Anext meal will come along and when they've grown so bad. Seventeen totwenty three foot, long they're, probably not going to get enoughsustenance of feeding of crabs. Small Croxen fish as well they're going towant look for that Bigar prey like a boar or war buffalo, and if they can'tcatch that, because they've messed up the time in or the judge the distanceor anything. With this UH plan of attack they're not going to get a mealat all again, Tou, O commete with so for mind huntingefeeding. Everyoneknows: Tha bought hunting, larger anotals done themselves for pray, butthey also can feed on the camolic on thevals in away they're scavengers. Sothey feed on berries in now reptowels if they have to. But the main food isstuff like dear Moosh has cariboo Bison, goat te father, just the usuallyrequire y average. Three Point: Seven pounds meat a day for that's just forlike Minimum Minimum Meintenance live like a feast or famine lifestyle, sother'll go several days without a meal and they gorge on over twenty pounds.Meat when a Cele Ma made so but this'll vary so in the middle of the winterthe'l gorge, on even more because in tough conditions and then in the summer,they won't need to gorge as much unless you refeme a given birth to young forthe actual hunt, we alays have to get ther prae running in R in order to takeit down. If an elk or a ball standserground, they can be dangerous.So if the PRA is moving, it's not focused on the fight mode. You know thefile flight mode, O they're not focused on their fight mode, if ter runningtheir focuse on the flight part of it. It's also easier for, was to selecttheir prey if they're on ha move. So they need to get them in the open aswell, because there's less cover like forestry, anprovide, camoals andProtection Anso. What theyill ether do is ta chase them out into the OPENO llthey'e circle them chase it. When they're chasing the wolfs. Have thefittest. Fittest Wolf run closer to the PA to the herd, rather an D, then, asthat wall taes out another one cull take its place and then so they'llalter hores one more one. Wor Fall on the next one. Take its place, that'show they're so efficient in in hunting parks when it comes to capturing thePrad, the lame for the rear or the SNA on the animal 'cause, it's actuallywherther at least onerable. So the snow is away from ambers or horns and theroom is away from hamstrings, which is where they can kick out wals aractually a risk averse. So that means they'll have to keep a safe distance ifthey can leaving other membors of th Packtodo the dangerous work in close,getting closer to of getting closer to pray. So a lot of fact, as though, canaffect wals getting prayed, so availability of the par profitability.So? U, how is it the risk reward ratio? If you get what I mean of getting aprey and the degree of HABITA overlaps, you've got t, remember, wars are interritory, so they can't overstep that territoriy Propraye, because they'lljust get mangled by the nextprt by t the rival pack and then they've gotfire in their hands. Meanwhile, they're looking for food, so they have to bevery careful in that sense, but wolls do go for areas with less travel, evenif there's less pray so that Wa. That...

...was u study done and they found theytravel for an area with eight cent less elk. If it was an easio travel andlalso go for stuff, likt, valleys and stuff like that. So if they're runningdownhell rather than O bill, it's a lot easier, so that yeah, so essentiallythey take an easier route o not exert as much energy for the hunt itself,Yeah Yeah. Ok, so I feel that works. WOLFOR was, if, like a WORF, issquaring up to a big L. A WORF could put tself in a lot of risk, so the e having to go a different wayto exact as much energy would obviously be useful and also I imagine foot inimpact not does it only provide an advantage of the huntby. I imagine Osprovides a protective advantage for the whole group as well. Yeah exacty, it'sit', it's like very tactical in the way they hold rote like you're at just likeWasand wats, crocodiles, its mall, brutal, yeah and straightforward,whereas with whereas wals have to be very, very tactical because of theyrdamage to their breat cado to Themas Yeealy, an individual wharf andindividual o absolutely get killed by elk reindeer anic bors. Anything likethat. It absolutely happened. Soi' Tring. What would you say? The sepershoks biurid bunches an different bunchches, O mating, Pavero, sozebisharks ar obviously bentic feeders, which means a beedlong autumn of the Cfloor. Now with me mention about their manuverabilicity earlier, whichoversees how flexible they are. They pretend to feed on snowfish andurchings crabs and small vert brays, which obviously most of the time livein prevases and small areas of rock, so obviously with them sacrificing theirspeed for their manuverability. It allows greater movement to actually getthemselves in and out of small crevaces to hunt for their food, so unlike greatwhite sharks, which are ambush, predators, zebershiwe Ar Cen reallyactively searching, and then they will kind of just go for their food, whereasU Great White Shot and have a very speccific manner o which they willattack. So they always have you know an approach. They have generalinvestigation, which is the circling that you usually see. Zebersharks,don't really have any of that, so they ere a little bit different Anto Thei,more common predatorial n sharps that we see these iyes ofvocy haves a lotshorter of a snol end, their mouths of a mot, smaller and their primary methodof feeding. Is I suction. So it's kind of a combination, ofsuction and likechewing. Basically, so they open their moutds in expansion and then obviouslethe food opening their mouths releases pressure that pushes the food inward.So I tem pushing the food inward. They then have teeth that' very similartorays, so they have kind of costeeth rather than the typical scratedsharpteeth, which is what you see in great whites and things like that. Sowhen it comes to hunting and feeding these guys are a lot more relaxed I'dsay, obviously they still have to actively search and find their prayingprevises and things like that. They still have the same kind ofMeurological pasthway wheret. No, will I be able to get this general huntingTi touks, however, then not as creditorbal as other shorks, so theyare slightly different and in their hunting and beeding technique, Wat exebeshots be caught like hunting witheach other cause Yo isolitaire ye h. They are primarily solitary Um, obviously, because we don't know thatmuch about them. The only time that they have been seen in groups is whenit comes to meting, and obviously you know, feeding during mating seasons,obvosly going to be a lot more frequent because of you know, cutting on thebody mass and you know, make choice and things like that. So that's probablythe only time that they're seen. However, they they're not like molds,they don't kind of herd. L their pray, like words, do ssimilar with what yousaid earlier about the salties being seen to kind ofe minut like their preythey're, not they sort of do because they kind of get them into prevases andthings they can get them. However, they're not like they don't do it tothe same extent as what woles and salties and things do. They doprimarily hund solly on the N. Well, as you said, the not really the big APOCPrut, Irto othese zebresharks they just SA, sat at the bottom Suca I a it, cantake life a bit easier than t they. They definitely are, but it's moretheir actual behavior. That is the important, is the fact ter. Yes, theyare. You know not the apex preditor as it would be: they're, not the samelevel of credator as wolves or crocodiles, but their behavior is nodifferent. They just apply a different scale which to me is fascinating,because if the shark isn't Ana Pex Credator, why does it need to apply asthe same mechanisms but on a smaller...

...sale? So the fact tha they can applyall of this to themselves without te technically needing. It is justincredibly fascinating, really do also compared teoter to they there'scompletely different form of feeding as well e does after a grons. It is a verysimplified mechanism. However, it is still the same fary behind all hontingand feeding like its the same kind of process, just with the steps of almostmore conbined, which makes it seem like thesless Sep when there actually is just 'cause. Obviously, your weeds in adiff different way, O Mindi Maxes, I'm not going to bring the rules here, I'mnot going to do like a one on one thing: Bu, do you think it's evillusuryadvantageous to be that kind of ambush hunter or what was it called o? No itit's almost like active serce like it is still y of Amboge, but it's not thesame level of ambush that youern Oese or were generally because orpst theychanged their body type to match the environment. So the time that Idescribed in in my blog is lifestyle dependency. So you've probably Hadt, mentioned itbefore, but basically the lifestyle they leave is what their body shapesand their morphologies depended oom so because they are ventic animals, theirbordeas had two a DA and alter itself too fit the bentic environment to beable to survive and thrive from an evolutionary perspective. That's one ofthe biggest things is that they hause change their assistans. So althoughthey are find ov, the laziest shark, they have had to do that to fit theenvironment. So it's not just they're, not just like lazy. They don't justsleep around they've had to go ovor millions and millions of years ofchanging the typical sharp way to fit their Eniromentyeah, because causeiimagine hunting for pray and that kind of cravis environment. This is verydifficult. They've not got to do as much as the a not got as much energyexpenditure in Ajua getting the play Tudor, so we ever spot HOS utilize, thecrevaces, so they do sort of ar similar thing. They kind of heard it into thearea, but once they've got it there, the energy used compared to the energyof Awolf used to actually take the prey down. It is a lot smaller. So that'sreally the only major difference between theme ton O show Athing AE,Rudon halfway, throug ockclashkeese now so ust going to take a quick, breeather,even usees time, to reflect on any frevious questions, and I don't knowanything you want to say I ase Waf a was quite interesting. This goes backsi how they survive and adapt in their environment, so one fing, wt coccodileshave adapted and perfected my eyes. Isha is a lot different to Oter,reptiles. Where so in normal nepties, you would have Oxgen outinate yourblood mixed of Dioxonay, bood and but in Crox them too are not mixed of,and instead they go fror a process of traling Fhrough, both the Atri and thebovenchcalsseparately. Certain there's a connection between the Artril and theV venusaseen that wrong circulation by a small opening called the foreman ofPanasea Palisa. So this opened between two vessels, Lein seply from thebenchicles, and basically this allows the crook to hold its breath underwater. So can they submerge longer and the blood will by past the long whileit submerge and it ll just and basically has an effect of stabilizingthe blodock she levens for other body, as is holding as breakfast uch a longperiod of time and yeah. I fhought that was really cool that how they managedto do that. Allthe time. I've got some cool facts about the warfare. I didn'tget a chance to mention and I don't think ou well, incredibly good. Theycan smell animals from more than a mile away. Everyone knows that dogs can swim.Wolfstom two but washerd an swim, eight miles her mile eight miles yet becausethey have hese small webs in their ht, so in between their tos. They havethese little webs. Yo know, I said, with the snowshoe effect walkingthrough the snow that comes into play when they're swimming as well. A avethaso eight miles ti is mental and IIS INSA ONA wave theyre weights 'causeeverybody disputes. This wols are not two hundred pounds: Okay, thennmaybe!You might get a beast of a Canadian Wolf. Okay, the odd chance that there will be anabsolute monster of a walfing CAADA. That's the only time on ouvorign T,normally between forty hundred and seventy five pounds, so th there'rstill hundred ound Wolf. Imagine imagine magine the size that imaginewhat I can do have you got any interesting ones. You've missed yetChina for yours, opershock probacly talking about earlier about the socialbewhen it comes to. When I mentioned...

...personalities, I didn't really gofurther on from that for a lot of people, don't associate animals withhaving personalities you might do with a dog or a cont y domestic animal Fr.Obviously, people try not to Ancrocomorphi which to seems tohumanize an wild animals now in aquarium settings and things it'sbetter to not do this to avoid attachments and things like that to mein a conservation sense, al trying to consewe species plipacies ever shocked,classes and dangers. So when it comes to conserving the species, if weexplain to people about the fact they have personalities- and you know abouttheir individuality- ind things, it dos kind of God, people a sense of oh well,it's not just a wild animal. An it kind o gives them something more than justintypocal. Oh, it's just a shop which, for me, is one of the main importantthings of talking about an animal, especially if you'r frying to convincepeople. Why it's an important thing to look! Afte and eserve is because, ifyou tancel it from a hummonized perspective, we automatically associatemore emotion and more feelings with the wild animal than we would do throughthe newspaper that says that it's a wild man eating thing mentioning aboutpersonalities, earlie. I think it's just a little bit more important that Imentioned that because of the Factar, not many people believe that animalshave their personalities and thys, but I am a strong believer in that youunderstanding animal. You have to know the animal itself like you just need to.Oh You T. definitely I denitly agree with that. I never think I've got formy Cooki Boys R. This is going. This is going way back to pre historic times.Whic, you know me is my forte and cocodires ruled, and they also filld alot of different niches as well, and they went for a lot of differentadaptations. For example, one of them is a group called, I think it's thePlania Plano crenits finassad tha wrong placearound that. But basically these were crocodiles or Crocodilians wawerebetter at living on land, an in water, and they would have longer legs. Theysometimes had a bit of body armor as well. Some would have blunt claws,which would also resemble hoofs. So essentially, these Crocodilians hadhoofs and would spring and then one of my most favorite animals of our time isthe CAPPRASUCUS, which is imagine another land crocodile with the longlegs T it's more like a big cat and a Crockalow mixe together. So it's acrocodile with all the crockdealing features, but with longer legs thebigger claws and could run like a cat. They were incredible. I all all thedifferent adaptations and things what cotiles have gone through Forut, thedawn of time and everything albou life. It's just it blows my mind every time Ithink about it. I absolutely love Hem Agig is amazing. I think I've gone forso much for thet cost of time and evolution. Yes, is s is incredible: m,OK, rigt yeah! That was really interesting, Ti what youall had to say:Ay Right, boing back home to te questions, great production andrefortot o strategies are both very imporsat ininsuring the survival of especies, what you Tellu ot your chosen animal. That makes us so interesting inthis factor. Sowot crocodiles, they, like I said before, thever salt is, arevery territorial, and a male will really only share its territory with afemale with other females, obviously for the purpose of mating with them. Sowhen it comes to reproduction, females can lay egnests wwould hold up to fiftyeggs, and the female itself will actually watch over the the NESTAThatches. There is a bit of parensal care when it comes to ret o when itcomes to these cocodiles. Sometimes repe O of this left to live on theirown bebasis, such as turtles and Um. So, and one thing Tho do as well, is oncethe little Atchens have hatched tha. The female will carry the the aciqensin their jaws to nearby water to inshare survival even further, and thenwe'll also continue to watch over them fornt other several months and theneventually, once the big enough, the hatchins will go off in the Ro and anstart to live on their own, but sometimes if the female is attacked byend of a crocodile jor in the carryin of the babies or whatever, if Anofersnory plays out where the babies are left from the Ron a bit too younger.That's fine, because a lot of the baby actions will have the instincts tosurvive. CUNT for foods hide away from preditors instantly, once te've beenborn. Es like it's like programmed into their minds already anone cool finger.I found out as well B cause at the temperature of Nasill actually predictsex of the babies. So if it's a caller...

...temperature iuwill produce majority offemales while males would be to produce a higher temperature, lifefle is prettycool. I'm actually quite surprised by T e. The amountof parent took care thatcrocodies up. I didn't think that was the thing I thought they were like, orthe rats that just leave n the nest and just like yeah I rud fall as well, butnow it turns out that the FEMALEIS actually put in a lot of dedication toensur survival. These crocks, it's especially with o reptile as much as amention as turtle yeah wit cocols. It seems to be different. I wasn'texpecting that to new packs, are formed by Bursing, wolves, that par and thenproduce they're young. So breeding is strictly seasonal, with increasinginterritorial scenting markings sod by the dominant mail and interstosteroonein all mal adult mals, all Idon't pack M members, even Mals God and playaround with Popso. Both sexes will have this parental kind of care, like packs,get very excited. Whenwhen newpop arrive, so data show from studies inthe wild, the usually rule. Only one female within the pack will reproduce,and so when another female reproduces, that's how newpats will form, becausethe other female will be kicked out and it will depend on the rank order of afemale which one is you know left so female o suppression is definitelysomething that happens in in warpacks and breeding. So a birth, Wolf,wolfhoked way about one pound and they're, really dark furd, they're,deaf, they're, blind, theyare, little or no sense to smell and the conrateregulate their own body. Heat forthe, safefy ar born in Aden, pregnantfemales usually dig the duns themselves and when they know they're pregnantoften is earliest three weeks before the POTEBARD. They prefer their densides to be located on elevated areas, Ne Water. So it's easier access for herAAs. Yes, who I could say iwo say so. It seems like there's. The packsoeveryone helps to get the the coming of the new pups and yet indor butthat'.That's for the female, that's Givven, both within the pack. If yet, Hena hasshe, she won't get nearly as much reward almost all protection, but thefemale will go away from the pack to protect her clubs like they become hermain priorsy roan pack, so she'll stay with the den she'll forage for herbasic means. Soshally that that's when the examples come on in of eatingberries and small animals 'cause when Sheis get birth Geo needs to really.She doesn't need those big bits to meet anymore 'cause she wa live on is gorgedon a massive meal. While she was pregnant and then it's just more aboutscabmagin and proteing, actually protecting the lives of the court. CubsMals actually show U High Trecency of intelsectual aggrassion during matingseason, so mals will intervene in sexual contacts which, which the ROMpreferred females involved, whereas the inttolerents of the Alfa female wasmore general e Saing. So is it true that a packwould or so adopt of a pupsif pups will not have their own paor move yeah? That definitely happens,okthat's quite cool them s they're, like parental CAREORSO stretch out tooe pups, not essentially from their pack, who are in need of the hell. It'spartly that, but it's also more survival, because I spoke rathergenetic in breeding, a pack which is definitely of the lugs. A the thefemales will fight off the ALPA. To prevent this. If there's an opportunityto bring new blood in and its Yo, that is like the perfect scenario: 'cause itit's a survival advantage increases the size of the pack, its new POPs to playwith, and it's a different genetic pool yeah. So it a win. There's no downsidethat it usually happens when the mother of the pack of the cubs rather havedied, and then a pack that comes across the cobs will take that on s just aboutSam one thing: Is there any sort of like meat in ritual? What the wars willgo through BCAUSE FOR SOAR? cocodiles they do drn. The wet season inAustralia, Wich from November to March, is when ther bredian season is and alot of th time. They would rub their heads and bodies together before theymet in the water. That's pass. Basically, there like mat an richhaters thtthey're, both ready to Ma and reproduce offspring says there anythinglike that in the wolves, I'm not sure anything. Physical contactlike that Ur bok females and males will bleave their pats to go out and find amate, and that's definitely something thatwill happen and then Itsd, likealmost a playing thing plaything. That they'll do to see whether the mal orfemale would want to meet with each other. So there was one case inyellowstone with a wolf called the Casanover, where he wasn't in the packor the road that the pack was near. The pack wouldn't go on because so manywalms had been killed from cars and trucks and stuff like that. Thiswolften didn't know what it would do if...

...it would go across the road make withthe female become playful with it multiple females in the Paksut and thenas the alphast started, tasing it it just crossed the road and itwould belike a force field. So that's that's probably the only case of rituals thatI can think of. Okay, I live afinger. Ie got one more question for you: DoWol to Wolf Pars make for life yeah they do. Yes, that's why you have theMaine Alpha male and Alfa female. Oh, what about you? China, then, when itcomes to reproduction for zebersharks. So this is the question I alwas mostlooking forward to because es ebershacks pimarily or the prestbetweens. They mostly have m eggs, so the eggs themselves are about seventeensenty meters long and about five Centometas Sicx. So when you thinkabout it, they are preict and the reason for this is because there's nopromential care in Evershok, so these ebersharks will um lady eggs. Now theeggs themselves have hairlike fibers that are almost KINDOF. It looks at itlike green sludch Om, and this is what attaches the eggs to the sub strait.Now the eggs often look like small rocks with a little bit seaweed on themand Hendes wites, the green sledge, and these w tend to sit into the cravicesand things often the female will. hiree them were shenows. They are protected.Obviously, the extra thickness helps to prevent any obstructions or issues withthe Ambryos, so once she has laid the eggs the eggs can take up to about sixmonths to hatch. This has all been recorded in aquariums, of course,because obviously, there's no set timings for things like this in thewild. So all of the data that I've got N in regards every production is basedon aquarium case bodies o. So basically, they hatch about six months, depending on theirtemperature, an the newbornsto about twenty to thirty, six centinetes, sothey're, definitely quite small, and obviously they have the CharacteriEstate Dor and lie stripe. Hence the name's eversharp. This is really whatallows them to be perfectly chamouclaged, so basically they convictprevices. They can itin between flora. They can basically fit in most placeswhere you know, small animals would be able to survive now in aquariums, sockstend to lay Um an annual cycle of about three months or so the residenteeppeershops that we have at work. U, ladies, an. She had four eggs in oneday UN, so they can have quite a lot of eggs and, depending on oosether, heldhome overwell being n things like that, it really does just Hend on theIndividual T. Oself and ladys is very popular o when it comls to havingbabies. She is an egg machine. She just kind of puned, then ouasm whenevershe's ready, but the main reason I was exciting for this question is becausezebrasharps can actually do something called partenagenesist. Now someanimals can do this, its s most recorded in smaller cellular organisms.These zebrisas hand now halfnogenesis, is where the female, so the mother willdirectly copy all of her Dne and will actually form an egg with Herdina. Onlyso there's no male input whatsoever, and obviously, when the PUP is bornafter you've done blood analysis and obvously fal dn a check is exactly thesame as the mother. I is a genetic clone and for that reason obviouslyallbe pots. A orned by partner Genesis are female because, obviously there'sno male chromozone there to you, know kind of have a male pot. So there'sonly actually three species of sharp that can do this, so the Zeverashop isworn. An it's been recorded in Fonit, head hammerhead shocks can actually doit as well, and then there is the white spotted bamboo, shark and and Simeto echain Cashoso, it's mainly the smallest species that can do it. However,zebesharks are the one where it is most recorded, an the few species of bonetheads that have been recorded to how pops, by Partonogenesis, havingaantally, survived and due to genetic issues and and things like that thathave been passed down. However zebershoks, an the pops that are bornby Partno genesist can actually reach adulthood in some cases, which is whyit is such an amazing thing, because when you think about it, if the shartsare struggling to find meat, so the two subpopulations h we havees eversharks,don't really intergreed btween them Um and ovously. The gene call, therefore,is restricted. So if the JEN pool is restricted or can see, the femaleconfoping her own DNA from a healthy bloodlane can kind of contense tate forthe lack of male influence. Really. So I think that's one of the main reasonswhy these guys are so cool is because they can literally have babies withthemselves. T ey do not ead any MAL INOKAYSO did you show they ha that oneyou hadeom had four eggs Ryeah. She did. She had four eggs in One da Okyso andyou soid. They had no PARENTA, no, no peparenta pay hastle and their geneticcopies foremost anyway. Some of them...

...can dy genrotemage had to e been aroundthe mail in a couple of months. Obviously theycan kind of staw the matterfalls in a way. So if they don't necessarily useit all straight away, they can kind of almost fondl it when they need. Itreally do not think that' such a disadvantagein that sense, because there so few eggs and there's no care in the wild.That's quite vulnerable, like a lot of the animals that have no parental Gal.Little parental care will have big brudes because they want at least someof them to survive yet see, although obviously some of them can be clotens,they can actually have forty to eighty eggs. U ANNUALLY! So that's the averageo they actually have a lot more eggs and the reason they have that many eggsis because of the fat that you know an prejucice and things can happen. I beseen an aquarium staring a lot different. Obviously, if they're muchstronger individuals, they can have obviously more eggs and things likethat, depending on the roadboal fictness, can be a weakness to some extent.However, it's kind of Valence owt by the number of eggs that they actuallyactually have and the fact that once they are sexually mature or theyliterally constantly pomp Ou, excite, there's no kind of discrepancy betweenthem, onts to say kind. Onhh is constantly a cycle or reproduction ago,Feno all Vyathoi. Our Second Tolat. This question is one's Goa e Ot to e eCI e Axcllent auguments previous questions, but nod like atdifferent.What do you believe? It's the greatiost weaknessis of the other shows animals oOof, the overchosen other ONS Eah, not you'r an animals oo fro cofols Ihhad it set up for my own animal. Iwas going to be Iaon my own and everything an in O, corly Swa. YouWANTA I' Fine Gomaks gone so the more. Whatcame to mind for me was with the Wallsdan was you know, and theirpackhunting and then they're forced to actually engage into a fight with theprey and their hunting big things of elk Wa could easily Gaw a wolf like yousaid they don't have. I was thinking they won't really have that muchprotection around ov than just indover them the pack, because a crocodile whenit comes across a wabor flow, it wants to fight back it its big horns. Itstill has its large plated high and its big jaws to fight while a wolf years,more agile has got its m his pack, but it's bit noas tough skinned and onehiat from an elk pubbly, vibe, faceal, blowsyeah. Okay, I see op, I thinkyou're thinking o an individual, all that that that point comes into playwith an individual warf butthat's, why they have the two mechanisms of thechasing and the circuling. So if you circle something doesn't matter howmuch it stands out, there's still goingn me Walf at the back of it or asa sides. So it can still attack that way, even if the pray is Tan in Al andobviously when it's running it's in that flight mode, Rodin firemode, Iwould think even though yes, they are taking down, they arl having a highrisk, ut they're, going to hi reward from it anyway. Yeah. I think theyarereesully risk massively by having such a tax, cal Wayfontin and multipletactics yeah. I I agree with you: It's they play more strategic and they'revery more sophisticated hunters. Acornand individual abilities do cominto play a la when it comes with Wolf, Hunton yeah, so I would agrie if you onthat, O. Obviously with you saying about the fact that they have so muchparental care, could you say that the parental care they do limits the amountof offspring? They have 'cause Owosee in trade offs between parental care andoffspring, numbers oo, see if they're having to give more care into theoffspring. They're, therefore going to have less offspring. So would you saythat because the cocodile Mons provide so much care too they're young, thatthey end up having less young overall? Well, they don't provide an extremeamount of care. It's only Fr for Thi the first several months of the HATCHS.They do watch ov th. The Nest, which is for a freemon period, is when theyhatch and then they'll watch over for several months, but east not and animmense mount of parensral care, and they wo they will lose a lot ofoffspring because of the area theye live in the the the the babies. Theirbaby hatshons are still sharing these same waters with twenty plus footcockodollars in them as well as you do lose a lot Bu. They counteract that bylane or to fifty to sixty eggs and high when it comes to the nest, so they dobound to hour. I do' see where you're coming from th e and also with themother showin parental care. She might...

...put herself in danger. Shes still alarge sixteen foot cocodile what would be able to defend for herself, so shewould be exposed more to danger when it comes to trying to care for her young,but is not such e extensive period of time in her life. She has to do this soDan. Obviously the wolls obviously have a lot of parental care as well. Socould you say that that you know my argument for saying that the amount ofparental care kind of limits, the number of ofsprig? Would you say thatthat at all similar to wolvs, I would but I think, because that MS,they wouldn't breed as although they wouldn't have tat many offspringsanyway, because it's a lot more difficult of a breeding process thanlay in eggs. So I'm not sure if it coors the same basis of that Yeh andalso walls will breed outside their pack. So I think the parental care isneard if that, even if the Coeven, if the AMOUNTO COBS are small, I think,because, because they're breeding outside of thei pack and outside ofprotection, I think the amount's of parental careis necessary and I still think having small numbers of wolvs will still havebig impacts, because I think forif. If a mother has, I say four walls, she can.There are definitely cases me. Mothers have nine or more than that, you, let'ssay let's say three or fourl- that still four more apex predators in amale female taking down heard it's three more walls to disperse from thepack to create newpacks. So I don't think they need as many as as many cubsas you know, a shark or or a crocodile definitely a trade off between parentalcare and offspring numbers. It's very don't you say that that trade offdefinitely applies whether or not it apply is to a great extent or not. Idon't think it does not unless not for mammars, not in this cat. No, becauseif, if they bred, if they had as many young as like as yours, do China Itudbe Wols, had overrun the place and then they'd have bad impacts on the ECOsystem. You know they'd overkill, so I don't think there isfor for theZebeshart China. Since we've been talk, we've talked about the PRENCAL CARAVASand you've aleady mentioned about how the counteract with the IA Bishork. You said it's kindof a quiet of a lazy type of animal. It D it's quite slower compared to thesharks and it doesn't have the big scaryes tea. What sharks are known foras well, because it hots differently how ies it protects itself frompredation, then so zebresharks aren't really predected upon that muchobwoththe. The fact that they live in such Su tropic areas they're not reallypredated upon, because obviously, in that area they are kind of you know thehop dog as it were. They obviously will be eaten by larger shops at times, andso the most time that they will be kind of worried about propredators is whenthey are young, and so when they first hatched and things like that, that'swhen they're more likely to be predated upon, which is why the MO obviouslytries to find nprevices and kind of almost hidden places or the meggs tohatch the main creditor. Fof zebersats isactually humans. Now I know that sounds really weird, because obviou see likewe don't just swim in the water and bite them, and but it's they're mainlycaught in bicatch in fisherys in Malaysia and Thailand, and places likethat. So the main Predator for them is actually Um. You know fishery net, soobviously because they are such slower, fo kind of lethargicanimals when it comes to the Predator of humans coming in Um, obviously,that's an added kind of pressure that isn't usually going to be there sopreviously t I wouldn't have been there, because, obviously we had an kind ofindustrialized, the fishing industry as much as we have now. So definitely thatis one that is a very good advantage disadvantage o. Then it is the factthat theyare obviously not going to be the fastest escaping fisheries andBicach, and things like that, which is one of the reasons why they are soendangered. I've got one for both of you. Do you think it's a disadvantage orweakness to be alone, duty, ato weakness compared to like the walls'cause, the walls are really or there's no weakness. otheir weakness is usuallywhen they're alone yeah so yeah. It can be seen as a weakness beingsolitary, but when you're able to grow two twenty three foot long and havesuch immense power 'cause crocodiles, the so war cocodile it's Um is by forceis three thousand seven hundred pounds...

...per squire inch, which is the secondbiggest bite force to live in today. So I I, it is more incapable of ofendingitself to be alone and when you're, the top dog of the swamp and you'veGryou've grown to such immense size. Yo nothing's really going to pick fightwith you over and of a coconile, which you can square up to yourself. Being asolitary for these guys isn't too much of a problem for them, it's more thanissue for them to live with Oter cocodiles, because then more fightswill break out and more injuries will occur. Okay. What about you? Tojana-and so obviously I mentioned before with Max's question, because Everashorks can be up to three meters, if not longer Wen folli Achor, which ferfemales is about six to eight years and for Mals, is about seven years n oncethey reach this size, obouse Incole, ref systems. These are kind of thereally big Hount Chos of the reef. Iyu, wouldn't really think that these guyshave any credatice and so being Solitar y really isn't an issue for them,because obviously there's not many natural credators. There are occasionswhere larger sharks nd like tiger sharks and bullshots ane things canfeed on the smaller severa shocks and things like that, but it it's very rare.Tha zebreshaks will have a natural prejucor that isn't humans an so humansreally are the biggest kind of credator to that. So therefore, they don'treally have much of an issue being solitary. If you tape away the humanimpdot Ono right, we've finally come to a lost question, so you all show likeyou, confusasm s shows one an all. So what made you choose them kind of call?I guess so an interest for me with crocodiles. Is The voic been a favoritefor me as a kid and theyre? Essentially, one of the one of the closest things toresemble dinosaurs over them birds to day and one of my biggest passionsgrowing up is panatology denosaurs and the fact that cocodos have lasted atthe door of the dinosaurs and ran supreme before the DASES got to theirpeak interested me even further and th ththe largest reptile to live incurrent time. Theyre, perfect, preditor, forge by eons of evolution, is just anincredible animal. For me, Limac have been obsessed with more since I wasyoung in my opinion, they're like the Apex Predator in the terrestriial world,ithink ther hierarchy, structure, dwarfd, that of lions and herds of d,the fact that they eat animals that dwarf them in size as well. I thinkit's fad to same maxes as preserve throughout so much for the work of thechangeing world O, even though the walls Thedon't compare to thecrocodiles and the Zum shock, and that way they did live through decades ofhanting. They outcompeted their large caus in the DIREWHOLF and Einformed, arelationship with humanity to which we now hous descendants of them, which Ithink is definitely a point to say as well. Ithink everybody as well makes the case that worvs are smaller than accountpart,for what people consider a small animal. It does incredibly well consider in itsenvironment, it's competition and the same in China's case, the human brotold so similar to Donand Max I've, always kind of pad em of the sharks,and obviously we touched on it when we talked about the sciences and things soit took me a while Trac to figure out which species of shop I was going to do,Sse, theres, so many species of them. I did want to talk about shops in general,but I think through working with zebirsharks, specifically and watchingthei behavior was the main aspect I was taking from. This is a case of you know,kind of to whoever's, listening, hoping that they will kind of take awaytersharks on just a mindless thing that they actually have their own frains andthey have their own personalities and that they have identities, and thingslike that. So that was one of the main reasons why I wanted to talk aboutthese guysis because of howl much of a first hand, experience I housed withthis species and with kind of learning about them as well. Yei wasn'tmoderating bas on beasall of you thoe. We have to Mentri, don't know to say Idon't know, okay, so about it. For our questions, I in ing an excellensopaand. It's beenreally interesting to try something new, so we're going to move onto ededucationI'll, provide fee back for rich o a Pannelis and give my opinion on to getsthe strongest dog y. Who was yes, I ca ao o Saa all o.These very interesting points, Avllod somthng new about Ach chanimal, whichis really nice. Okay, right, China, hello, O e alent points. It was vertmusic to follow what you were saying,...

...so it felt very plunned out, which wasvery good. You were very good at surprise, questions. Why did feel likeyou need to speak or ask more questions during the other sections, so whenMaxandon was speaking, MHM Aright next God the same with China, I a like it wasory, plunged out easy to follow the to that wecluded restaurances to studythis was very good. You have very good question with t e people that time tofeel Tike, you're Wana, good fertil, Thot, Ye STRO of Cricism Yeh, Al Right,Nox, yeah, again very interesting points. I learn Ol lots of things aboutcrocodiles, I didn't know which was very good Um. You were very passionateabout itself, but Wy to say it didn't feel as plumbed out as the other two,which is may be someucg to work onoke. In my opinion, they all felt very gug.It was difficult to decide between everyone to I thought was the best swit ever fin theonetudging. We Need Ladte the countdown fem goingon Doway so peadin. He Te countdown thing. Ano ncopyright come on Enix of it. Just Cat Mikes to play. Aton is guatalver. Yes, okay, Selo go! Let you hear o. In my opinion, it was between two adpeople. It was very hard to pack. I feel like Don enthe cont Rud Silu. She was very goodat the debasing call. That's all I have to say like towards the Engevarian, soit las shuteing other people down. I told you, the wolf had no weakness. NoGid, it t you a had mabe twice asas. It was thelast time we saw him. I must do after igrieve of Julie,because Dan did have some very good arguments, not just for biologicalbuoffer into the history of myphosis. Well, with the Wolf Tian went in, he went hard on the research and Iapplauded for that good oneday to rever O whel. I was a real tryhard on theresearch I didn't decine. I did a Chun if I were toloess Po Gusin Havens onassignments and Noi. I call if yo put a lot of effort into the research becauseit was it to be. I did feel like Don Canon. Asyou know. Th, I agree I feelhat dun has pretty good to bake skills as well B yeah. I feel I I feel likethe debate. Skills were something obviously because we don't do a lot ofdebates in m O subject itself and we've not really. I mean I know for myself. Ihaven't really done a lot of specific debate work so when it her, I I Asurprised questions. I wasn't. I wasn't worried about that, whereas things youknow the debating aspect of it, it was kind of like great Oeri can do this, soit's very constructive criticism and I will adhit Juliet you you've.Definitely given us things to work on a UM, podcast hosts a students- and youknow hopefully as people as well, so it will also be holsting a pole onafter twit for you, the old uns to go onto youfor, gave t best iswast and weall know weallknow. This is our opinion. We want to hear yours, Yehiean, ebut ye.We all know that the twitterpoles never lie. That's true os it for out pate. So I'm going tohand back ver to match the out Troil Yeh. Well, I hopefully you guys enjoythe episodes as much as we did. This has been great guys so audience. I'vegot a question for you, which one was best cut.

In-Stream Audio Search

NEW

Search across all episodes within this podcast

Episodes (7)